New Results and Updates on Magnetic Surveys at Steel Group and the Shriver Circle, Ross County
Jarrod Burks, Ohio Valley Archaeology, Inc.
Surveying earthworks is just plain fun! In this presentation I show the results of magnetic gradient surveys at two lesser known (but increasingly important!) earthworks in Ross County. At the Steel Group the magnetic survey uncovered a surprising number of new enclosures, some as small as about 20 meters across. And with the help of Rob Cook and two of his intrepid students, we managed to complete a magnetic survey all the way around the Shriver Circle—a daunting task considering that Shriver is probably Ohio’s largest circular enclosure at 1200 feet across! Despite the many historical impacts to this tough old earthwork, we were able to trace its entire circumference…even inside the Chillicothe Correctional Institute.
Radiocarbon Dates from the Lady’s Run Hopewell Occupation Site, Ross County
Jarrod Burks, Ohio Valley Archaeology, Inc.
Paul Pacheco, SUNY Geneseo
DeeAnne Wymer, Bloomsburg University
Last summer's work on the Harness Farm focused on the Lady’s Run site, a second Hopewell occupation site found in the Scioto River bottoms below the Liberty Works. At Lady’s Run, using a suite of geophysical and excavation techniques, we uncovered portions of a large structure, numerous pit features, and a buried (i.e., subplowzone) secondary refuse deposit. In this brief presentation we showcase the results of three radiocarbon dates recently funded by an OAC Essenpreis Grant.
The Archaeological Survey of North Storr's Lake Site, San Salvador Island, Bahamas, 1996-2008
Thomas Delvaux, Youngstown State University
Since 1996, YSU has been excavating at the Storr's Lake site and has uncovered an important Lucayan Indian site as well as numerous artifacts which document the well-established trade network the Lucayans possessed.
The Floating Features of Adams County: An Introduction to On-Going Deep Testing Along the Ohio River
Matthew P. Purtill and James D. Foradas, Gray & Pape, Inc.
On-going CRM archaeological investigations in southern Adams County, Ohio, are revealing new data on the formation histories of a series of terraces along the Ohio River. Geoarchaeological and preliminary archaeological investigations have demonstrated that much of the terrace system represents Holocene-age landforms which contain prehistoric artifacts and features at various depths of up to 2.1 m. Significantly, buried deposits are not situated on relict A surfaces (Ab), but instead are “floating” at various depths within subsoil horizons (e.g., Bt, C). This paper presents preliminary project findings and discusses the formation processes responsible for the current distribution of archaeological material.
Archaeology at Alexander’s Station: A Glimpse of a Forgotten Settlement at Lock 37
David F. Klinge, ASC Group, Inc.
In April 2007, ASC Group, Inc. conducted a Phase I archaeological survey in advance of the replacement of the Fitzwater Road Truss Bridge in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. The bridge carries Fitzwater Road over the Cuyahoga River, the Ohio & Erie Canal at Lock 37, and the Lock 37 Spillway. Historic documents revealed the existence of the small community of Alexander’s Station, centered on the lock prior to the 1913 flood. After that event, the community appears to have been abandoned and largely forgotten. However, at its peak, it consisted of eight buildings including the extant Alexander’s Mill, a lock tender's house, and a complex of four attached buildings that stood between the canal and the Cuyahoga River. This complex was occupied by the Vanoucek family who operated a saloon and general store for canalers and their families. The Phase I investigation revealed that, despite intensive disturbance and the loss of much of the supporting landform, intact and interpretable evidence of the Vanoucek occupation and Alexander’s Station survives. Artifacts recovered from sealed contexts provide some insight into the function of the buildings within the complex as well as hint at the challenges of life on the interior waterways.
Tales from the Basement: Investigations at the Cozad-Bates House, Cleveland Ohio
Elizabeth Hoag, Cuyahoga Community College
and Mallory Haas
The Cozad-Bates House, situated in the “Little Italy” neighborhood of East Cleveland, dates to 1850 and is one of the only historic structures of early Cleveland left standing in this area today. This structure was saved from demolition in 2005 partly due to its age, and partly due to a claim made that it had ties to the Underground Rail Road (UGR). In this presentation, we highlight our archival, historical, and limited archaeological research into this house, its inhabitants, and its ties to the UGR. Our findings show that, while some aspects of this structure’s history are clear, ties to the UGR are more fleeting.
The Tarr Log House (33-JE-137): Historical Archaeological Results at an Early 19th to Early 20th Century Eastern Ohio Farmstead
Craig S. Keener, Kevin Nye, and Joshua Niedermier, Professional Archaeological Services Team
This presentation covers the results of Phase I through III archaeological and historical investigations at the Tarr Log House (33-JE-137) located in Jefferson County, Ohio. The house site is affiliated with Daniel Tarr and his father Peter, both notable personages of the Jefferson County, Ohio area and panhandle region of West Virginia. Peter Tarr is associated with the first blast furnace west of the Alleghenies, while his son Daniel served as a sergeant in the War of 1812 and was a ferry master, blacksmith, and a prominent farmer. Archaeological investigations at the site found a large historic assemblage that revealed depositional patterning around the house foundation. The artifact assemblage produced a probable building date of the structure, while a ceramic analysis of the early to mid 19th century assemblage and the late19th to early 20 century assemblage provided socioeconomic information as to the status of Daniel Tarr and later family occupants. Finally, the archaeological evidence is compared with historical information and testimony provided by local informants.
The Construction and Use Patterns of the Hocking Canal Rock Cut Towpath and Bridge Located in Falls Township, Hocking County, Ohio (33Ho702)
Chris Nelson, Hocking College/Rio Grande University
The Hocking Canal Rock Cut Towpath and Bridge (33HO702) is a very unusual site on the Hocking Canal. It is located in Falls Township, just north of Logan in Hocking County. It is a little-understood site that comes from the nineteenth century canal era in the United States. The layout of the site is far from traditional as the towpath has been blasted into a sandstone cliff that overlooks the Hocking River, and at one point it is over 150 feet away from the river’s edge. There are several elements to this site including the blasted rock towpath, earthen ramps, a large ravine that had to be bridged, post holes cut into the stone, and names carved into the wall so that future generations would remember some of those who had once utilized this part of the canal. Several archaeological methods were employed to provide answers to the use pattern of the site. These methods included excavation of units and profile trenches, visual inspection of large features, surveying and mapping techniques, and many hours of literature review. The canal was abandoned in 1894, so there is no one alive today who would remember how it was used. Archaeological methods created an opportunity to provide these answers which would have otherwise been lost to time.
Ohio Hopewell Material Symbols Today
Mark F. Seeman, Kent State University
This presentation will discuss several recent approaches to interpreting Ohio Hopewell and will explore the connections to both social scientific and humanistic perspectives. The use of Hopewell material symbols in assessing social organization and ideology will be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the shaping effects of definition, analogy, and.....judgment.
Oak Openings Archaeology: Spatial Statistical Discernment of Late Archaic Camps
Kevin R. Schwarz, ASC Group, Inc.
The presentation results from the Phase II assessments for the U.S. 24 relocation project, which is sponsored by the Ohio Department of Transportation. Site 33LU759 is located in uplands near the Oak Openings region of Lucas County, Northwest Ohio. I hypothesize that acorn exploitation and hunting of deer attracted by the oak stands are among the reasons that seasonal prehistoric settlements occurred there. Controlled surface collection of a very large lithic scatter at first appeared to be an unintelligible palimpsest but microtopographic and spatial statistical analyses reveal that individual camps can be discerned despite intensive plowing. The statistical analysis utilized nearest neighbor hierarchical clustering, K Means clustering, and Ripley’s K analysis. The clustering analysis indicates the presence of multiple camps and a discussion is presented of the study’s implications for Stothers and Abel’s (1993) regional Late Archaic settlement model.
Methodological Improvements in Measuring Thermal Diffusivity in Prehistoric Pottery
David Snyder, Ohio Historic Preservation Office
Joni Manson, Heritage Education and Research Services
Testing of Early Woodland and Fort Ancient potsherds from three Ohio sites has revealed significant variation in thermal diffusivity, a measure of the rate at which heat is transferred through a vessel’s walls. Such measurements are useful in studying changes in the heating effectiveness of prehistoric pottery, which may reflect dietary changes associated with a greater reliance on starchy plant cultigens. Recent tests on pottery from additional sites have focused on refining the methods employed to measure thermal diffusion rates, decreasing the time per sample requirements, and examining the replicability of the experimental results.
The Archaeological Geology of the Turner Earthworks, Mounds, and Village, Hamilton County, Ohio
Kenneth B. Tankersley , University of Cincinnati
For more than 150 years, the age of the Turner earthworks, mounds, and village has been based on the seriation of artifacts and geometry of the earthworks. Seriation failed to provide meaningful relative dates because it was based on errors in the geographic and geologic data of the nineteenth century. Newly interpreted geography, geology, and direct AMS 14C measurements indicate that the Hopewell village and the construction of the Elevated Circle and Graded Way predate the construction of the Great Oval, Mound 3, and possibly Mound 15. The radiocarbon evidence also indicates that the Turner earthworks were built during the Post-Holocene Climatic Optimum. Hydraulic features such as dams, ditches, and drains are likely examples of Hopewell economic and ritual adaptations to the cool and dry conditions associated with this climatic event.